A computer network consists software and hardware that is used to send and receive data from one device to another. The role of hardware is to prove the physical equipment that are required in order to send and receive data while software defines the set of instructions that uses the hardware equipments for data transmission. A simple transmission of data consists several steps at various layers of computer network. In computer network models we will discuss the models in detail to understand how the data is actually transferred and received at a computer level.
Before we discuss the computer network models, lets have a discussion on the layers that a computer model consists. Lets have a basic idea of layers involved in data communication.
Layers of a computer network models
1. The main purpose of having several layers in a computer network model is to divide a process of sending and receiving data into small small tasks.
2. These layers are connected with each other, each layer provide certain data to its immediate higher and immediate lower layer and receives certain data from the same.
3. Dividing a model is layers makes the structure quite simple that makes it easy to identify the issue if it occurs. There are three main components of a computer network model. Sender, receiver and carrier.
At sender Side:
Higher layer: Higher layer serves the middle layer, directs the message (or data) to middle layer
Middle layer: Middle layer picks up the data from higher layer and transfer it to the lower layer
lower layer: The data is transmitted to the lower layer of the receiver side.
At receiver Side:
lower layer: Receives the data from the lower layer of sender side and transfer it to middle layer.
Middle layer: Middle layer picks up the data from lower layer and transfer to higher layer.
Higher layer: Higher layer transfers the data to the receiver.
4. We will discuss more than one computer models here, each model has different set and design of layers.
The most important computer network models are:
1. OSI Model
2. TCP/IP Model